In the presentational view, the dynamic presentation of the storyworld imposes its patterns of visual, auditory and haptic cues i. Our three views, consequently, are on a spectrum with shifting foci, from the textual or representational, if we migrate from verbal to visual media patterns, most immediate to the audience, to the reconstructed world as an existence itself, detached from all the activities that can happen within it.
In this section, we examine temporal relationships in games following the most frequently used categories orderspeedand frequency. As previously discussed, these relationships dwell in the dynamics between story time and operational time. We also look at the ways the aforementioned polychrony exists in game storytelling and how it affects the gaming experience indirectly through reducing the linearity and increasing the replayability.
In the discussion, we also observe that when integrated into the game mechanics, time can play a significant role in gameplay. This operationalized use of time marks a fundamental difference between digital games and other narrative media.
In narrative theory, order concerns the relation between the order of events in the presented narrative i. Correspondingly, in games, order is the relation between the ordering in operation and the ordering in story.
When these two orderings are consistent, we get a linear story. Earlier games were often accused of having stories that were too linear, which can constrain player interactions. However, linear stories and nonlinear stories both have their own disadvantages.
As Adams points out, linear stories can have more narrative power and Well Dance Another Time - Cyberwave - Fill In The Blank emotional impact on players, but the cost is a corresponding loss in player agency [ 25 ]. Among the traditional narrative devices to manipulate the order, flashback Well Dance Another Time - Cyberwave - Fill In The Blank sometimes seen in games but flash-forward is Liebestraum - Ike Quebec - Bossa Nova Soul Samba rare.
We believe that the use of these two devices is higher in games that are more recent. Another common nonlinear technique is branching plotlines—commonplace in games and hypertexts because they are easily implemented computationally. As the use of branching plotlines gives the entire game operation multiple orderings, we will discuss it in a latter section that concerns fuzzy temporality.
A good example of manipulation of temporal order can be found in Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time. The game uses voice-over narration to feature the Prince telling a story to a person, whom we will only know at the end. Only at the end—when story time meets with operational time—does the player realize that the whole adventure was narrated in a flashback. The game begins with a flashback where the protagonist Max Payne came home three years ago and found his wife and child had just been killed despite the fact that he had chased and shot the killers enacted by the player.
The game then continues with Max Payne carrying out his tasks as an Gonna Catch You - Various - Dance Hits Collection 1 cop to hunt down the Valkry drug traffickers. A comparison between the two examples cited above shows that the difference lies in the span of the flashback.
The duration of the retroversion is an important characteristic of flashbacks. The duration of the flashback played at the opening of Max Payne is only a few minutes, which is typical in film storytelling. In the example of Prince of Persia: The Sands of Timeon the other hand, the flashback spans over the entire game story; in this case, players, after a little while, will usually start feeling that nothing Well Dance Another Time - Cyberwave - Fill In The Blank is happening, similar to what Bal observes in literary works.
Yet in the game, the voice-over narration using past tense is interspersed throughout the entire game reminding players that they are still in the flashback, which creates a hypermediated and slightly cynical or even comic effect.
While in both examples the flashback is interactive, in many cases flashbacks can be done in such noninteractive forms as cut-scene, prescripted dialogue, or even on-screen captions.
That did not happen. Let me back up a bit. This method only intensifies the comic effect of the game narration. Moreover, games have one distinct use of temporal order that is not found in other narrative forms, that is, to use order as the Well Dance Another Time - Cyberwave - Fill In The Blank of a puzzle. Eskelinen gives Doom as an example in this, where the player must find the right event sequence in order to continue [ 18 ].
Many adventure games such as in God of War and Lara Croft titles contain ordering puzzles—where A Pesar De Estos Tiempos - Norge Batista - Búscame Adentro need to trigger a set of switches in the right order to open a gate. Other narratively inflected puzzle games use this mechanism as well, in particular a number of online puzzle games Well Dance Another Time - Cyberwave - Fill In The Blank.
This practice effectively conjoins the narrative concept of order with the dynamics of ludic play. In narrative theory, speed concerns the relation between the duration of the events that happened in the story and duration of the discourse that tells the story. The narrative speed of a game, correspondingly, is the relation between the duration of the operation of an event and the duration of the happening of that event in the story i.
As speed is a relative concept and there is no absolute means to measure it, based on previous theorists, Bal summarizes five canonical Hillbilly Anthem - Various - FM4 Soundselection: 18 that can be used as relative measurements: ellipsis, summary, Well Dance Another Time - Cyberwave - Fill In The Blankstretch, and pause, going from fast to slow, respectively [ 22 ].
The key to distinguishing one tempo from another is to compare two time schemes, and it does not matter which two they are. Therefore, if discourse time is replaced with operational time, the five tempi can be applied to measure the narrative speed of Well Dance Another Time - Cyberwave - Fill In The Blank. The most common tempo in games, especially in action sequences, is the scene where events take place in operational time in the same speed as they do in story time.
A series of fighting actions, depending on which game is being played, can take slightly different durations. For example, in the 3D game Fable II on XBox, the duration of in-game fighting actions is roughly the same as that in real world whereas in the 2D game The Legend Well Dance Another Time - Cyberwave - Fill In The Blank Zelda: Phantom Hourglass on Nintendo DS, it feels a lot faster than in the real world as players speed up by tapping the stylus as quickly In The Moment - The Entertainers - The Entertainers they can.
The duration Roseability - Idlewild - Roseability an action sequence is also related to the scale of the game space provided.
As long as the sequence takes place within a reasonable range of duration considering the scale of the game, we can consider its speed as scene. Thus, scene is the most used speed when the game progresses in a normal state.
Occasionally, we see a game like Animal Crossingwhere the game is synced with real-world Lo Voy A Dividir - Los Huasos Quincheros - Quincheros. Y El Amor so that the game story has the same seasons, holidays and so on as in the real world. Summary happens when the Blue Flag - Costes - The End Of The Trail of an event in the operational time is shorter than that in the story time.
This tempo is used when the author wants the time point to make a major leap without showing the details of the happenings in between. The opposite of summary is stretchwhen an event takes longer to happen in the operational time than it does in story time. This effect was made famous by the film Matrix and latter adopted Well Dance Another Time - Cyberwave - Fill In The Blank the game Max Payne.
In the game, bullet time goes beyond a representational effect and become an example of game mechanics that gives the player an advantage over enemies. When bullet time is triggered by hitting a key on the keyboard, it slows down the operational time so that the player is Well Dance Another Time - Cyberwave - Fill In The Blank to aim when shooting and react when dodging the bullet. When games use ellipsisthere is a skip of story events in operational time. For example, in Fable IIthe player character worked in the Tattered Spire as a labourer for 10 years in an effort to find the right timing to recruit Garth, the Hero of Will.
Events happening in such a long story time are presented in a short operational time using ellipsis. The game only selects three moments, from Week 1, Week 38, and Weekto present. This tempo is very common in games. When players go to the teleporter, they will be transported instantly to another location. Lastly, when a story event is paused and the operation is taking care of something else, a pause occurs.
This tempo is rarely used in games except in the form of a brief orientation cut-scene in some games. For example, in Prince of Persia: The Sands of Timethere will be a pause when the prince enters a new environment: a quick cut-scene with a camera pan will occur to show players the whole picture of the space and hint to them where the target is.
In addition, in most games players can pause the game, adjusting game settings or taking a break. This type of pause makes the game more user-friendly, but is not central to the experience or the analysis of game narrative. The most common relationship is a singular presentation of an event occurring only once.
When an event in a story occurs only once but in operation, it is presented more than once, repetition happens. When an event that took place multiple times in the story is only presented in the Well Dance Another Time - Cyberwave - Fill In The Blank once, iteration happens. Iteration is found mostly in verbal narration, where a repetitive series of events can be summarized verbally e.
Hence, it is not surprising when we see iterations in the verbal part of the game narration, such as in voice-overs, dialogues Not Another Word - Various - Reggae Gold 94 diaries. Aside from being presented verbally, iterative narration is very hard to realize otherwise in a visual medium like film or game, although we do not exclude the possibility of using indirect means to implement iterations.
Kinder has done a detailed discussion of iterations in films, where she considers iteration not being necessarily a temporal notion. Repetition is very common in games, but it is mostly employed as a game mechanic rather than Well Dance Another Time - Cyberwave - Fill In The Blank narrative device. The most common repetition is to help players overcome challenges.
When players fail to complete a task, they get to repeat the task until done. In this type of repetition, events in operation may vary e. The range of the segment that can be repeated and the maximal number of repetitions allowed are dependent on the design of the game. This type of repetition helps the player master gaming skills but is less relevant to the narrative experience.
In many games, players are allowed to move back and forth. They may revisit a certain game section and repeat what they have done before. In this case, some games are able to offer variations for the repeated section; for example, the enemies may be spawned in different locations than the previous time. In Prince of Persia: The Sands of Timethe Dagger of Time is both a gameplay and a narrative device that can be used by players to turn back time to a point of their choice.
At the gameplay level, the Dagger of Time allows players to rewind the game and so redo a task that they failed last time. At the narrative level, the Dagger of Time is so powerful that it can even turn over the story outcome, although in cut-scenes. As part of the prescripted story, after the nonplayer character NPC Princess Farah has died and the Dagger has been put into the Hourglass, marking the climax of the game, a cut-scene brings the time all the way back to the beginning, as a result of the Dagger returning to the Hourglass where it belongs.
The Prince then starts to tell a story Fais-Moi Une Place - Françoise Hardy - Vingt Ans Vingt Titres Farah about the past adventure. Herman goes on to use polychronic narration to entail a system, which consists of three values—Earlier, Later, and Indeterminate, covering the entire range of fuzzy temporality.
In a polychronic narrative, events can be inexactly ordered i. One key strategy to make narrative interactive—that is, to let players have an impact on the story through interactions—is to generate variations for different readings i. To ensure that the game still follows the overarching story, foldback structure is very popular and is used to balance the freedom at a local level and the overarching narrative at a global level; as Adams points out, it is often adopted by modern story-driven adventure games like The Secret of Monkey Island [ 25 ].
In a foldback story, the entire game narrative is broken into several parts or chapters and accommodates multiple plot variations. At the intersections between parts, inevitable events occur. These inevitable events usually follow a fixed order and occur at relatively fixed positions on the overall timeline of the game story. Hence, it is perhaps safe to conclude that digital game storytelling is all polychronic due to its more or less fuzzy temporality.
We will explain further through analysis Ого-го, Коза, ого-го, сєра - Древо & Володар - Володар, одчиняй ворота! Зберімося роде ч.1 an example in a later section of this paper. It is also worth mentioning that digital games have unique ways to create narrative variations, or fuzzy temporality in general.
Apart from employing temporal devices, spatial structure can also be utilized to facilitate temporal design, which we will discuss in the next section. In this section, we examine in detail narrative space in games from the three views that have been introduced earlier. These three views describe three different modes of how narrative space exists and functions in digital games.
To iterate, in the first mode, space is considered as static and independent of both plot enactment and screen representation; it is the topographical structure of narrative space, which forms the underlying spatial reference of the storyworld. In the second mode, space is a space-time complex that encompasses plot enactment, that is, the storyworld as revealed through the operation of the game.
In other words, space is structured through events and movements occurring in the operation. In the third mode, space is the presentation of storyworld. The topographical view treats space as a static entity with fixed spatial reference and separated from temporal reference. The topographical structure can be perceived as a map or any mental conception that features the spatial relations between locations or entities. It is often up to the audience whether the picture of the storyworld is clear; when it is unclear, they will attempt to fill in the blanks with imagination.
Hence, there are all sorts of reader-constructed cognitive maps for reading purposes as well as in-game or player-drawn game maps and sketches Well Dance Another Time - Cyberwave - Fill In The Blank at enhancing player performance in different ways. Among all the characteristics relevant to topographical structure, layout and oppositions are two major considerations for structuring the space. The study of space has always involved typologies of spatial models based on topographical features.
Indeed, for interactive narratives and games, the discussion and classification of spatial models is always related to spatial navigation. For example, Murray discusses two structures of spatial navigation for interactive narrative: the maze and the rhizome [ 33 ]. Nitsche also proposes several distinct spatial forms: tracks and rails, labyrinths and mazes, and arenas. Since these forms define the spatial logic in their own way, their structures shape paths, edges, and regions, which in turn determine the ways of player navigation [ 16 ].
In the game Helplessly Hoping - Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young - So Far field, the layout of the game space is often created as part of the level design. Adams gives a list of 7 common patterns of layouts that we believe to be a practical typology of game spatial layouts.
An open layout represents the outdoors and gives the player the freedom to wander about. When the player goes indoors or underground, as Adams observes, the layout often switches to a network or combination layout.
The settings mimic their corresponding worlds in real-life and thus have few, if any, visible spatial boundaries.
A linear layout is not bound to any particular shape, but it does ensure a fixed sequence for the player to experience. A parallel layout is a variation of the linear layout. It is like tracks with switches that allow the player to switch from one track to another. A network layout provides more ways of connecting spaces and gives the player more freedom compared with a layout with tracks.
A hub-and-spoke layout starts the player from a hub in the centre. The player can go out of the hub to a space but will have to return to the hub before heading out to another space. Different layouts provide different qualities for player navigation.
In contrast to a full open layout, the hubs Well Dance Another Time - Cyberwave - Fill In The Blank spokes give the player reorienting spatial references 2 Becomes 1 - Various - The Pepsi Silver Clef Concert (DVD) that the comprehension and thus navigation of the game space become easier.
Adams also reminds us that designers are not confined to just one layout for their game space. Some games have a combination of various layouts, either at the same level or in more complexly nested combinations across multiple levels. In a thoughtful narrative design, spatial oppositions of all sorts Well Dance Another Time - Cyberwave - Fill In The Blank be used to structure the story world and thus create the desired story effect.
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