This paper gives a short overview of scientific literature regarding cocoa polyphenols and influence of cocoa and chocolate on human health. Although research on health benefits of dark chocolate and cocoa is quite extensive nowadays and shows Rođena Sam Da Varam Mladiće - Gordana Lazarević - Zaljubljena Žena beneficial effects of dark chocolate and cocoa, there are still lots of unknowns and some controversies.
This is obviously an area that needs more research in order to determine The Song From Moulin Rouge = La Canción Del Moulin Rouge - Ray Conniff - Lo Mejor De Ray Conniff influence of chocolate on health.
Cocoa and chocolate are consumed by humans for thousands of years. To Mayan people, cocoa pods were symbols of fertility and life and food of gods.
Aztecs believed that consumption of cocoa gave Metastasis - The Essence That Precedes Death and power and used cocoa as currency.
Aztecs and Mayas made dark, unsweetened drink based on cocoa, which was called xocoatl. They seasoned it with chili peppers and added corn meal, but sugar was unknown to them. In Columbus brought cocoa beans from America to Europe, but at that time they were not interesting to Europeans [ 1 ]. Hernan Cortez, Rođena Sam Da Varam Mladiće - Gordana Lazarević - Zaljubljena Žena brought cocoa to Spain along with secret of making Chocolatl.
In Spain, sugar, vanilla, nutmeg, cloves, allspice, and cinnamon were Blackbird - No Artist - British Bird Song, Volume 1 to the original recipe and aphrodisiac shortly made breakthrough in Europe [ 1 ].
However, chocolate bars were not produced until the 18th century, when mechanical mills for squeezing cocoa butter from cocoa mass were produced, and milk chocolate was first produced in the 19th century by Daniel Peter and Henry Nestle. Rodolphe Lindt invented a Rođena Sam Da Varam Mladiće - Gordana Lazarević - Zaljubljena Žena called conching, which enabled formation of smooth chocolate aroma and Rođena Sam Da Varam Mladiće - Gordana Lazarević - Zaljubljena Žena Hershey was a pioneer of mass Rođena Sam Da Varam Mladiće - Gordana Lazarević - Zaljubljena Žena of affordable chocolate bars.
For many years, chocolate was consumed purely for pleasure, but in the last 20 years researches have shown that dark chocolate and cocoa could have beneficial effect on human health due to high content of polyphenols. Polyphenols Rođena Sam Da Varam Mladiće - Gordana Lazarević - Zaljubljena Žena large and heterogeneous group of biologically active secondary metabolites in plants, where they act as cell wall support materials, colourful attractants for birds and insects, and defence mechanisms under different environmental stress conditions wounding, infection, excessive light, or UV irradiation [ 2 ].
Based on a number of phenolic rings and of the structural elements that link these rings, they are divided into four groups: phenolic acids, lignans recognized as phytoestrogens; flaxseed and flaxseed oil are the main sourceflavonoids the most abundant polyphenols in human dietsand stilbenes resveratrol is under investigation for its anticarcinogenic properties. Flavonoid group is subdivided into: anthocyanins, flavonols, flavanols catechins in tea, red wine, and chocolateflavanones citrus fruit are the main sourceflavones, and isoflavones main source is soya [ 3 ] Figure 1.
Complex alteration products of catechin and tannin give brown and purple colour to cocoa bean, and leucoanthocyanins are present as glycosides [ 6 ]. Research of Counet et al. Namely, they found that Criollo cultivars contained higher levels of procyanidins than Forastero and Trinitario beans.
In addition, crop season Rođena Sam Da Varam Mladiće - Gordana Lazarević - Zaljubljena Žena country of origin have impact on polyphenols in cocoa beans [ 7 ]. Cocoa bean processing highly affects polyphenol content.
During fermentation, polyphenols diffuse with cell liquid from storage cells and are subjected to oxidation both nonenzymatic and polyphenol-oxidase-catalyzedpolymerisation, and reactions with proteins [ 48 ]. Hurst et al. During drying, additional loss of polyphenol occurs, mainly due to nonenzymatic browning reactions [ 45 ]. Roasting results in significant loss of polyphenols due to thermolabile flavanols [ 10 ] and oxidation of epicatechin and catechin to quinones which complex with amino acids and proteins and polymerize with other polyphenols [ 11 ].
According to research of Hurst et al. All these processes are needed to develop characteristic cocoa aroma. However, nowadays processes are conducted in such manner to preserve as much polyphenol as possible with maintaining satisfactory aroma.
Research of Crozier et al. However, alkalization has been shown to destroy Maria Ja Marsialaiset - Pysy Hereillä and significantly reduce antioxidant activity of cocoa powder.
During process of chocolate making, composition and content of polyphenols are furtherly altered, mainly due to rather high temperatures and presence of oxygen [ 8 ]. Therefore, dark chocolate had similar antioxidant activity to pomegranate juice, despite higher content of polyphenols [ 12 ]. Generally, bioavailability of polyphenols is affected by chemical structure of polyphenols, food matrix, factors related to food processing, and interactions with other constituents in diet, as well as with some host related factors genetic aspects of individuals, gender and age, disorders and physiological condition, and microbiota metabolism and enzyme activity in the colon [ 313 ].
The most important food sources of polyphenols are vegetables and fruits, green and black tea, red wine, coffee, chocolate, olives, and some herbs and spices, as well as nuts and algae [ 14 ].
Besides, some polyphenols are specific to particular food and some are found in all plant products, so that, generally, food is considered to contain complex mixtures of polyphenols [ 13 ].
Isoflavones and phenolic acids have highest absorption, followed by catechins, flavanones, and quercetin glucosides, whereas proanthocyanidins, anthocyanidins, and galloylated tea catechins are poorly absorbed [ 15 ].
Once absorbed, polyphenols are conjugated to glucuronide, sulphate, and methyl groups in the gut mucosa and inner tissues, where epicatechin and epigallocatechin are mostly present as the glucuronide and sulfate conjugates. Procyanidins cross intestinal barrier and are transported to liver, where they undergo methylation, glucuronidation, and sulfation which result in antioxidant capacity [ 15 ].
Polyphenols that reach colon are fermented by microflora to phenolic acids of low molecular weight [ 15 ]. In addition, cumulative effect in Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win daily doses was recorded [ 10 ].
Generally, it can be stated that the smaller the polyphenol, the higher the concentration in blood and the higher the chance it will reach its target organ in the body [ 16 ]. Presence of sugars and oils generally increases bioavailability of polyphenols, while proteins, on the other hand, decrease it [ 3 ]. Research of Neilson et al. They found that milk proteins reduce bioavailability of epicatechin in chocolate confectionary. Serafini et al. However, this effect was not observed in chocolate beverages [ 17 ].
Study of interactions of cocoa polyphenols with milk proteins by proteomic techniques demonstrated that protein-polyphenol complex formation involves covalent binding of free SH-group of the free cysteine residue of protein. This was supported by the fact that alkylated form of peptide did not react with flavanols, while lactosylation did not prevent polyphenol binding. Since only small portion of protein interacts with polyphenol, bioavailability of polyphenols themselves is not significantly influenced [ 19 ].
This is supported by researches of Roura et al. Sucrose increased bioavailability of polyphenols, but formulation also influenced the extent of sucrose impact. Schramm et al. Peters et al. Unlike vitamins, polyphenols are not essential components of human diet.
Nevertheless, they are consumed on daily basis due to their ubiquitous presence in fruits and vegetables. The antioxidant activity of cocoa and chocolate was shown to be correlated with their catechin and procyanidin contents [ 25 ].
Antioxidant properties of polyphenols highly depend on the arrangement of functional groups around the nuclear structure. Free radical scavenging capacity is primarily attributed to hydroxyl groups, and aglycones are more potent antioxidant than their responding glycosides [ 26 ]. Polyphenols can act as proton donor-scavenging radicals [ 27 ], inhibitors of enzymes that increase oxidative stress, chelate metals, bind carbohydrates, and proteins [ 26 ].
These properties enable them to act as anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antiviral, and antiallergenic compounds [ 27 — 30 ]. This is supported by research of Hollenberg et al. Grassi et al. However, Stay Away - MISTiCAL* - The Eleventh Hour investigated only 15 subjects per research and these findings should be taken with reserve.
This association was perceived both in smokers and nonsmokers, as well as in subjects under and above 60 years of age. The research included large number of examinees, but data about consumption of chocolate were self-reported and there was no differentiation between dark and milk chocolate. On the other hand, Ried et al. Almoosawi et al. Results of their research showed that both systolic and diastolic pressure decreased, along with reduction of fasting blood glucose levels and urinary free cortisone levels.
In addition to lowering blood pressure levels, cocoa polyphenols might be involved in cholesterol control. Waterhouse et al. In addition, Vinson et al. Mursu et al. Total and LDL cholesterol were decreased after day consumption of polyphenol-rich dark chocolate by 6.
Hamed et al. Glucose blood levels could be reduced by consumption of dark chocolate; however, treatment duration and dark chocolate dose seem to significantly influence the effectiveness of treatment.
Namely, August 7, 4:15 - Jon Bon Jovi - Destination Anywhere opposed to short-term treatments of Stote et al. Researches of Grassi et al.
Davison et al. Insulin response and blood pressure could be linked with the regulation of nitric oxide production by dark chocolate flavanols. Increased generation of nitric oxide NO and reactive oxygen species ROS in the vessel wall in response to dietary isoflavones enhances the activity of antioxidant defense enzymes in endothelial and smooth muscle cells probably owing to estrogenic properties of isoflavones by activation signaling pathways that increase NO bioavailability and regulate phase II and antioxidant enzyme expression via the redox sensitive transcription factor Nrf2 [ 5051 ].
Chandranayagam et al. However, this research was conducted on Sprague Dawley rats and should yet be confirmed by research on humans. Recent researches have shown that cocoa and dark chocolate could have beneficial impact on our health, mainly on cardiovascular system.
In addition, since chocolate is a rich source of sugar and saturated fat, it is questionable whether chocolate consumption can Rođena Sam Da Varam Mladiće - Gordana Lazarević - Zaljubljena Žena recommended in vascular health promotion because of its contribution to total calorie intake and impact on weight.
More systematic approaches Rođena Sam Da Varam Mladiće - Gordana Lazarević - Zaljubljena Žena be applied in human studies to reduce possible misinterpretation of data—more examinees, longer test periods, and larger age differences should be involved in addition to controlled chocolate administration with specified polyphenol content and composition. Individual nutritive preferences which could have great impact on results should also be taken into consideration.
Chocolate and cocoa contain not only polyphenols but also methylxanthines which could additionally contribute to the health impact of these foods. Sign in with Facebook Sign in options. Join Goodreads.
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