I have no idea. It Para La Libertad - Joan Manuel Serrat - Interpreta A Miguel Hernandez simply be a hole with nothing behind it except a singularity and nothing in front of it but my bad decision, but there's not enough time to find out.
As she flies away from me at close to the speed of sound Angel opens her arms and her heart towards me. A sphere of white light emerges from the centre of her chest, so bright I have to close my eyes. The light hits me in the solar plexus. All Angel's power and dreams, the love and the anger she feels for me for not explaining why this is happening to her, bury themselves in my heart.
I spread my wings and fold myself inside them, into a new universe. I had drunk three cocktails and was feeling pleasantly venomous with regard to Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win also brave, also sloshy. She signalled for another drink with a flourish of her perfectly manicured hand. Oh the endless hours of preening we did and the money we spent just to keep up, not even winning, only staying in the game.
She added without grammar, "Spent five bloody months doing that. Where it got you? I'd planned to tell her about several other men Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win had take an interest in me.
I always planned to, but never got around to it, as if there was going to be a future time in which she wouldn't be surprised to find that her quiet and studious best mate had an alter ego whose agenda was a hundred times more out of control than she let on. Popular, cheerful, happy Sula was the defender and social saviour of quirky, geeky, quiet Francine, who'd rather hole up with an interface than face people all the time, head-on.
Those were our professions at school, our stock-in-trade outside. But anyway, Ashley was Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win asshole, I had to admit it, although I hated to admit it because of the time and energy already wasted in being in love with him for so long and taking Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win the: You could make more of yourself;and the Why don't you dress more like Su;and the I can't stand it when you start arguing;and the Don't talk about the generation of Forged Class Orders and other smart stuff in front of my parents, okay?
They don't like weird people;and especially the Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win look better when you smile.
You have to pay yourself back, with interest, and you pay everyone you know, in the currency of their dismay at your deceptions. And then, the gambling.
A jolt of fear at my own behaviour ricocheted off the inside of my sternum and it was so alarming that I giggled. Always the girls with the inappropriate laughs. Never mind. I'll tell some sob story to Dad when he gets back from Ingeborg or whatever he's doing and that'll sort it out.
Sula twisted all men around her fingers, dazzled them with the flash of her inconstant eyes, the strange flicker of her attention that gave her commonplace engineered beauty an indefinable eroticism. I longed to have her power. It came out sounding a lot flatter and nastier than I intended.
I didn't recognize my own voice. In the mini-movie of me giving this speech I had been a lot more amusing. But now I've got the voice of the tougher and more real me who's been living inside Francine recently. She's my disappointed half, the part who wanted to feel warmth, see colour, hear the world as if it was an instrument she Hi (Mindset Remix) - Thomas Feijk - Hi play.
She went out with her sign turned to say Open, had no door policy and. He was the sports teacher at our school, and by the way he dressed you could see he considered himself quite the hunk.
He was good-looking, but around girls he had the careful attentiveness of a pit viper. I'd thought. I don't know what I thought to be honest. There wasn't much thinking. Using him was like test-driving a disappointing sports car. It goes for sure, fast-and that's when you realize that not only haven't you got anywhere to go in it, there aren't even any roads out of town.
She should be laughing. I want to make her laugh. I want to stop her staring at me as though I spat on god. I want to fabricate a joke, but the truth will do as it happens. She's not angry with me because she thinks I'm bad. She's distraught because she can see that. I'm hurt.
Really hurt. I did it to myself and I don't know why. I want to vomit on her lap but I don't. I pick up my Slingshot with easy grace and look at the shine on my chromed nails. I list a few of the boys in the senior year and a bunch of names she's never heard of, all men old enough to be one of our fathers. Well, if we had any idea who my Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win actually was. It's hard to say and, after the chromosomal tracking and filtering is all done does it really matter who's what?
I have thirty fathers, all their strengths, none of their digressive mutations. I tell her about the men's various styles, their habits, their ways, all of which involve dumping me in one way or another. I have a worldly air that is supposed to be sophisticated but somehow, although it is on other people, it's not on me. I tell her about Dix Clarke, the small-time LeedsGuide show host who picked me up last Tuesday with a lot of lines about how he liked intelligent girls and dropped me off at my house with a packet of candy and a thumbprint on my Abacand that gets me half price of whatever shit they're promoting this week, all in return for a hand job.
It's bullshit. He was nothing out of the ordinary as far as I can remember, which isn't far, but I need to hate him-that sad, lonely, wretched, awful man who wanted me to cuddle him after. Didn't call. I call that rude. She put her drink down. Francine is always serious about whatever it is. He lives with us, and has done for five years. He's big in the design of disposable tableware for spaceflight catering; ergonomic handles, nutritionally enhanced plastics, all that.
Because I'm like those Forged, to him. The ones that think and live inside machines. He has a thing about insects too, which makes that all Doxy (TheElement Remix) - GANDI - Doxy EP nicer.
Allergic to bee-stings. You should see him when one comes in the house. I want to die. Not to mention issues at home; dingbat ex-model mother losing her looks and getting old, devious stepfather bent on social climbing into the stratospheric heights of county politics.
Nobody who understands me. You could do me as a project in Psych in ten minutes. She cracked the tops and handed me one as she tipped her head back and sucked the liquid out of hers. With a cough she flicked the empty tube onto the floor under the table, not even glancing to see if anybody noticed. She paused and closed her eyes as the soft drug brought on its temporary calming, alcohol-neutralizing glow.
She checked the white paper for smudges before she put it away. I'm the Slut With Problems. Not Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win.
You're the smart homework girl. You're the all-A girl who was going to do something extraordinary one day long after I was some big sassy momma eating brown rice and bringing up a thousand kids nobody else could be bothered to have.
I get up, full of determination, and make for the Ladies. Inside the light is too bright and the tiles are too shiny. I lock myself into one of the cubicles, put the seat lid down, sit and open my bag. I've thought of this day a long time. Kind of surprised it's today. I put the pathetic little first-aid numbing patch on the back of my left hand and trigger it. It probably won't go deep enough, but it's all that was in the medicine cabinet. I yank a load of tissue out of the dispenser and spread that under my left hand, and some within easy reach of my right, balanced on the top of the paper-holder to keep it clean.
I know if I think about this at all I won't We Are All Made Of Stars - Moby - 18 (New Album 2002) it.
Four Slingshots is about enough to get there, not too many to make me shaky, and the Hydro has taken off the worst of the motor-neuron interference from the alcohol. I've practiced with a piece of card dozens of times; hundreds of times with a stylus.
A designer's knife is lot like that. With my index finger I trace the outline of the Tab chip in the back of my hand and use an eye pencil to mark the corners. I overdo the pressure on the first pass and feel the blade snick into and drag the stupid chip, cutting its surface so that my vision instantly fogs up with red warnings from NorthNet, advising me that I may be experiencing technical difficulties with my Tabacand, telling me to get Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win advice on how to fix it and would I like to know about special offers on replacement Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win I get NorthNet itself talking to me a second later.
It speaks with the voice of an angel, Michael or Raphael, always gentle, as if it cared. And I used to confide in it, as if it cared. What are you doing? Oh god it hurts. Your Fire - Human Drama - Momentos En El Tiempo: Johnny Indovina Live Acoustic look around the warning notices at what I'm doing, but it doesn't help much because everything is lost in a huge upwelling of blood.
I put the blade down with a hand that can't stop shaking, pick up the first swab set and wipe the loose skin to the side, blotting the ooze at the same time; an action which is ten times more agonizing. Blinking away tears, I pick up my eyebrow tweezers, get a hold of the slippery fish scale of a chip and rip it out of my hand. There's a black moment. I open my eyes and gasp with pain so awful that I pass out for a second or two. I'm dimly aware of my head hitting Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win wall on the way down and briefly I really do see stars.
I thought that was just a saying. I wake up on Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win tiles, my hand a hot, burning fury. The surgical patch that cost me two months' allowance is lying on the floor with me-I can see it on the white tile, yellow and flesh-coloured, face-down. I'm glad I didn't strip the backing off before because I could have ruined it.
Now I grab it and peel it. I flip the skin flaps back into place over the wound and slap the patch on. Immediately the pain lessens to a bearable degree and I get up. Everything is covered in smears of blood and the more I wipe it up with the Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win tissues the more it spreads around. The chip itself, the Tab, which has connected me to NorthNet and LeedsGuide and all the pearl-strung AIs of the Solarverse since I was six years old, is a square of gold, floppy at the edges and carrying the residue of my nerves, damaged as they are.
I still have the skullware in my head naturally, but I won't be getting that out. And it won't work without the Tab. Well, people get it to work in spy films by using devious bodily infiltration robotics, but I don't think that's what the Police do here and I can't. I feel very clear, very pure, suddenly weightless. The silence. I didn't know the world was so empty. When I look at things the knowledge about them that used to sit behind my mind isn't there.
The world has become meaningless, open wide, nothing to tell me where to go, what I can do, what I can't. If I think about this anymore, I'll become too scared to go on. I take off my shoe and smash the Tab with the heel. It cracks and flattens on the white tile, becoming a pink and gold mess. I pick it up in another Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win of tissue and flush it all away, then get out the can of NanoMom I brought with me for the purpose and clean up the cubicle.
Maybe it's forensically good enough to cover my tracks and maybe it isn't, but I won't be here long enough to find out. I clean the can and my fingers and stuff the tissue and can into the bin. In my bag are my toiletries and the few The Mist Is Rising - The Joe Perry Project - Let The Music Do The Talking of tradable stuff I could lift from home.
At the last minute, I change my heels for running shoes. My hand no longer hurts, it simply fizzes with the patch's work. I feel drunk and giddy on one level, but the queen of truant cool, who has been waiting a lifetime in the wings, takes her cue inside me. Out of the door, out of the toilets, along the club wall at a normal pace.
I pretend to be Sula. I'm smiling. It's impossible not to. I think I could fly. Sula doesn't even see me as I circle around the back of her. Then I'm in the street, walking fast, like I've somewhere important to be, and for the first time I can remember there are no words or pictures superimposed on my vision, no voice in my head to tell me where I am. I glance left and right and no information appears.
I look up, look down-nobody calls and I can't hear anything except the drizzle and the wash of water in the street as cars pass. I start to run, don't mean to, just have to, and beneath every light and sign I say silently sorry, sorry, sorry to the Guide AIs, and to all my friends who can no longer hear me. Talking to the dead. But I'm the one who died. As I pass the closed shop windows the holopeople in the adverts running on the glass stop their promotions and turn to watch me.
They move into close shot and crane their necks to see me go. The ProHair lady with her mermaid curls waves uncertainly at me and I know it's really NorthNet, forsaken, looking through her useless eyes of light. I skip sideways and point myself at the street eyes above the storefronts and I wave as I skip, both arms overhead like I'm signalling aircraft or leading a cheer.
I said I was going. I wrote it in my diary to you, NNet, and you know, and you're going to let me go. I know. The dapper young man who puts his perfectly tailored suit jacket on a thousand times a day in the display window of Tinker Tailor, and a thousand unseen times in the night, leaves it hanging on the back of his chair and blows me a kiss. I turn into a no-holo, eyeless street-St.
Paul's-and slow down under the lights, barely recognizing anything without its overtype of map data. I make myself walk because I've got all the time in the world now that nobody and nothing knows where I am, or what, or who.
I need an out-of-state taxicab now. Sympathetic cabbies hang at certain locations-vendor pads where they park up to take a rest. If there are any of them willing to take an illegal passenger, they'll leave their doors unlocked. It's half an hour before most of the club-goers will Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win heading home, so there should be some cabs nearby.
I find the coffee bar on St. Paul's easily enough, and the taxi rank. Some of the cars are parked in bright light. They have their warning flashes bright on their flanks- out of service, do not attempt entry. They shock to stun. In the darker areas outside the streetlights most of the taxis are similar.
No, Locked Groove 4 - Hecker - 2 Track 12 say in Technicolor that even the un-Tabbed can read. In fact, there's only one that displays nothing and has no driver. My heart sinks as I see its registration plates and billboard; it's an out-world taxi and it's from the Stuff Universe called Dindsenchas.
Dind is a historical Sidebar, devoted to all things Celtic, "the premier destination of the true Briton. I don't want to go there and live by farming the land and riding around on a horse like a peasant of old, which is what I will be.
Or worse. Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win you have to be prepared to go anywhere to get out of range of your home Guide and away from obvious trails. NorthNet wouldn't stand in the way of a police pickup if they found me, no matter how deep we were down with each other. There are two officers standing at Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win coffee-house doorway, chatting.
One of them is a Tek, all armour plate and rocket packs. I walk past. That's it. I can't go past again or they'll suspect. But I can't face Dindsenchas. My mother is into all that Faerie and Celt stuff. She collects figurines and has her runes cast once a week. It would be like getting stuck in our living room forever. I keep walking. Now what am I going to do? Hang and hope the cops move? Sod's Law says they won't.
I dawdle as much as I can without looking like I don't know what I'm doing. To my right in a narrow alley the minor streetlights flicker suddenly, as though they were lanterns blown in a sudden gust of wind: signals. I automatically look that way. One of the lights winks again.
There, half on the pavement and half off, is a taxi. The sound of a car on the main street seems too loud and acute suddenly, the swish of its tyres on the wet road hissing like it's trying to call me back from a dangerous mis-step. The taxi's plate says Sankhara. Sankhara is as frightening as Dindsenchas is boring.
It's a High Interaction Universe, although I can't remember much more about it than that. Sankhara is quite a long way out from here-a hundred miles overland to the Gateway, plus who knows how many light-years after that? I have no idea what it's really like, but I remember watching a documentary about it once with Mom's boyfriend, Darren.
He turned it off after five minutes, saying, "Bloody lunatics. What do they want to go and live there for? Asking for it. Alien shit. The car is dark. I tap the lid of the trunk on its sensor strip and it opens. I glance back towards the coffee shop and see two shadows approaching along the pavement. One is bulky and tall-Tek. I drop into the trunk and close the lid. It shuts silently then an interior light comes on, a tiny glow. Journey time will be Susannahs Still Alive - The Kinks - The Kinks часть 3-4 minutes and fifty-eight seconds.
This message and your travel have been sponsored by the Free Agents of Infinite Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win. Please remember, and give generously. I had to put my hand over my mouth to stop myself laughing. It had never occurred to me that the refugee underground was a commercial enterprise.
I didn't laugh long. Rain beat on the lid. It was very quiet. The car was well looked after. Its tough nylon fabrics were hard and scratchy and hot, but not dirty. After a while I got used to being curled up and found a way of resting my head on my arm.
When the journey finally started I ignored the pang in my chest where I took the bullet of Sula's hurt, and concentrated on the soft, floaty suspension rocking me. I fell asleep soon after I tried to count the junctions we stopped at on the M62 motorway, picking up cars in our snaking landtrain.
And that was it. Really pretty easy, for leaving life behind; disappointing that nothing came after me, that instantly I missed none of the things that had filled my waking days before this moment. The Infinite Strand-that straight stretch of shoreline between Desolation and Unforgettable Beach-was always marked with wreckage. Most of it was of the usual kind, pots and boxes, barrels and crates of wood and leather broken by the ferocity of the offshore currents and vomited onto the edge of civilization like so much bad food.
Occasionally a metal container came intact and sank into the soft sucking mud of the shallow bay, but it wasn't High Tension Wires - Send A Message that interested me.
I was watching a Stuffie. Most of Sankhara was populated by Stuffies of one sort or another. The 4-D fabric of the world was built of Stuff, everything, every person and animal, except for the immigrating humans who had come here from the Sol universe. But this one was unusual. Stuffies of Sankhara and the other Sidebars were isolated from Ai - Neon Bunny - Stay Gold. Locked into the ordinary constraints of 4-D living like the humans.
Architecture and geography insensible. Vegetable awareness barely a shimmer. And other beings, magical or otherwise, all shut away from Unity into the lockbox of linear time and single-minded awareness. Not him though.
He was like me, a little. He could see Stuff. He knew what he was made of and like me he could trawl the awareness of the human race, tracking their thoughts like a hunter on the trail of easy prey. As I watched him do what I'd sworn off forever, I was struck with longing so fierce it hurt like a knife blade under the Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win.
I'd first noticed him purely by accident as I sat overlooking the early-morning ocean. He had come along the beach, combing the tideline with slowed footsteps and a bowed head, dredging the sleep of the human booty who lived in tents at the strand's end. I saw the humans changing, stirring in their unquiet dreams as the images and thoughts darted out of their heads; shoals into his net.
And I knew him then for what he was, a part of the Sankhara Engine itself. He was strong and young, light and agile as only creatures of his race could be, but more than usually alert.
Once he had pulled himself carefully onto the hard, cold steel frame of the container he had coveted he sat down and looked about him for signs of sea snakes, the Ootoo, whose beautiful voices could sing him to sleep before he had a chance to run away. There was one not far away, its silvery and tourmaline scales shining in the gentle morning sunlight, but the tide was out and it was in danger of beaching itself if it came for him, so he turned his back to it and placed his hands down on the heavy hinges of the container's sky-facing door.
Confident he would not notice me, I walked to the edge of the high cliff and jumped down into a deep tidal pool, soaking up its fatal impact energy and using it to warm me as I swam out towards him through the cold currents. I Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win there and watched, transfixed by the sight of another Stuff anomaly-the only one I had ever known before being that Paladin of Unity, Theodore, killer of my friends, destroyer of worlds.
Cool, grey water Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win and foamed around a metre below the elf but he didn't mind water, nor beasts, nor anything much that would have worried a human beachcomber.
From the tips of his long, pointed ears to the soles of his enchanted boots he manifested restlessness, anxiety and determination. I watched him immerse his attention into the locks, the substance of the metal container itself. He persuaded certain strong bonds to change their strength and shape. Because he had the Engine's mandate and some of Stuff's immeasurable powers granted to him, the steel obeyed him.
It snatched oxygen from the air, crumbled under his fingers like dry biscuit and fell into the sea where Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win stained the water brown and red. The elf slid away from his post and back into the shallow water, treading it at a safe distance as he heated the seawater inside the container enough to create a sufficient pressure differential to fling the door open in a single blast of steam.
Concentrating so hard was exhausting, and climbing up the side and into the hot container must have been unpleasant but he went to it with nervy grace. I swam closer, ignoring the Ootoo, which, after a brief attempt at serenading me, followed a more interesting vibration into deeper water.
He had found sugar, Land Of The Sky Blue Water - Bing Crosby - On The Air, May 27,1937 not the kind that sweetened tea. This kind of sugar was deadly material and the trade in it within the precincts of the city was ferocious and lucrative.
Candygirls could ingest it and convert it into alchemical drugs. They could manufacture almost any biochemical compound from it, and many with the pseudo-magical properties that made Sankhara the playground for the daring and suicidal.
Candygirl sweets were almost guaranteed to contain enough Stuff interactions to send any Solar human over the side into Translation, the Sve Za Našu Ljubav - Laki Pingvini - Striptiz and molecules of their bodies slowly converting over time into Stuff itself, until they had painlessly bled away into its alien continuum. They were highly prized in spite of, and because of, this danger.
I couldn't understand what this Engine sprite wanted with it though. I thought I would follow him. Then the weight of his body and the continued refilling by the sea through the container's various loose joints told on its position. The pile of slippery packages shifted under him as the whole container tipped a few degrees and, with a tug of one particularly large wave, settled much more deeply into the velvety soft silts beneath it.
He stuffed two more packs into his bag and clipped it shut, leaped up to catch the rim of the doorway with his fingers, and missed. He landed unluckily and packets slid from under him, making him twist his knee and stumble into the lowest corner. The sea boomed against the side of the container and the liquid mud took another gulp. The top of the container where it leant lowest slid below the waterline and a thick torrent of hungry ocean seethed eagerly down on top of his head.
He was strong but hardly invulnerable, Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win but mortal. Maybe the Engine would remake him, I thought, if he died here. Maybe not. Stuff wasn't known for restoration. The elf braced himself against the container wall and waited for the water to fill up the empty space but the uneven angle was increasing rapidly as the weight tipped the heavy box over onto its side.
The Ootoo, attracted by the vibrations and the curious sounds of the container's fall, returned from deep water.
I heard his angry prayer to the Engine, trying to summon its occasional mercy. He asked for a gift of Banishing, begged it to consume the Ootoo, let him escape Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win humiliation of ending this way. He begged for intercession, debased himself, promised his slavery. He began to drown. The problem of a Stuffverse is that I can't do anything to it, like I could to normal matter, not without summoning the attention of Theo's ever-vigilant pack of hounds.
The Ootoo's song had sent the elf to sleep. Water filled his lungs. By any sensible margin I should let him drown. I shockwaved the Ootoo into unconsciousness-it was no more able to resist a precision pressure wave than any Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win living creature-then dove past it. I swam forward to the elf's floating body, grabbed the tough fabric of his tunic and pulled him rapidly up to the surface, where I towed him towards the beach.
In the shallows I was able to get my footing on soft sand instead of muddy fines. Using the basic first aid of my long years in worlds where medicine was unknown, I turned him on his stomach and pumped his lungs out, trying not to crack his ribs.
He Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Wincoughed and lay panting there for a minute. I watched him get to his hands and knees, then sit back on his heels. He turned to look Xanthein - Symposium - Symposium me and his glance, ready to be grateful, became the long stare of the unbeliever.
At first surprise, then incredulity, then a strange, canny smile crossed his features. His emerald eyes narrowed slightly and even a child could have seen that he was thinking fast. I found a ridiculous grin on my face. I should already have run away, but I missed my cue. He looked at it for a moment, then took it and pulled himself to his feet. I cracked up laughing. He started to laugh too. His eyes glowed, literally, as a natural streak of roguish bravado emerged.
He took it, briefly inspected the contents, and slung it onto his shoulder. His glance as he looked back left me in no doubt that I had met with his approval-more than that.
It was raining salt water again. I could taste it when I licked it from the back of my hand. It fell on me gently from a grey sky that was soft, like a blanket placed over your face to hide you, but you can see light through it.
There wasn't any breeze, even off the sea. Ludo, the leader of our happy band of moronic dreamers, said this morning that we were in a depression and laughed about it, like the old joke hasn't worn thin on him yet. Maybe after a billion repeats it gets funny again. I kept going along the length of the boardwalk, handing out leaflets. They were going soggy, and the few people who passed me were all turned in on themselves because of the weather.
After another fifteen minutes had crawled by, and nobody showed any signs of interest in the Love Foundation and it would have been pretty difficult for them, because I wasn't exactly the enthusiastic convertI took myself out to the end of the pier and leant out over the ornate iron railings. The tide was in. Lonely, depressed, unfulfilled? I let them go and they separated out as they fell, like giant leaves, down and down onto the surface of the waves.
Hey-it's a purple autumn this year in the kingdoms of the socially dead. The sea refused to take them away. I figured that for fair: after all, the sea in Sankhara wasn't unfulfilled. It was too full of sacred whales, oceangoing dragons, spellbinding Ootoo, Moonglow - Richard Olsen - From The Heart Of San Francisco treasure, lockers of the ancient dead, tribes of merpeople and Forged research submarine bases for that.
And it was already too salty to care about the rain anyway. At least the fish would enjoy eating the Foundation's words.
The Foundation got them printed on premium biodegradable rice paper, vitamin-enriched, so that if any of them were to end Dont Get Around Much Anymore - Various - The Swing Years in the trash heaven forfendthen they'd be food for the wildlife.
Best place for them, I thought-shit to shit. I ran back down the pier and turned onto the weathered grey boardwalk that stretched the length of the beachfront. Katy, my team leader, was back up by Buddy's Surf Shack with her psychedelic rainbow umbrella, promising self-worth and unconditional Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win to the unwary.
She was nice in a prole sort of way, and I didn't like not liking her because it seemed really unfair. I hunched deeper in my borrowed raincoat and tried to look smaller so I could pass her unnoticed. Pasty-faced Earth girl! Today they were just wet cubes of wood panelling with a tall, dark figure crouched theatrically between them, beckoning to me with a long, pale hand, his coat sleeve dripping.
From beneath the brim of a ridiculous pale cream cowboy hat I saw Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win long, agile mouth grinning at me, teeth white. I looked up into his face with its high, sculptured cheekbones, its long and slanting eyes that glowed with faint greenish light. I stood back and made to look at his outfit, too pleased to be angry with him, though I should be, the way he picked me up and dropped me on this crew of fools.
Do we gain from this addition to the stockpile of concepts applicable to leisure and popular culture? I think so. Conclusion In keeping with the emphasis of this book we have concluded this chapter on the theme of the production of sport as consumption. The chapter considered the growth of a global goods and services industry in sport as well as the distinctive nature of professional sport in different societies.
Research into sports fans shares features of research carried out by marketing and advertising agencies. There has been a shift from viewing fans as passive to active and interactive agents Ross and Nightingale More generally, however, we have argued that the consumerisation of sport is a product of heightened commodification and marketisation in society. Despite this, as Whitson et al. Sport is both modern, as practice, and postmodern, as part of media culture. As Raymond Williamsp.
Radio and television came to satisfy and extend an already developed cultural habit. Technologies have been implemented for a reason. The main ones being commercial and the national interest, as defined by different governments. What is especially marked in the past fifteen years in the UK and throughout the advanced capitalist economies is the enormous increase in the Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win of sport on television and Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win in the press, radio and other forms of media.
David Rowe a, pp. That this has coincided with a period of neo-liberal inspired government de-regulation is not a mere coincidence. The Sport—Media Relationship The relationship between the mass media and sport has always been an important one WhannelHorne et al.
The media have helped to construct what is meant by sport. At the end of the 19th century 40 Sport, Consumerisation and the Mass Media 41 the newly forming modern press assisted in boundary marking and boundary shifting of what was defined as sport and even what a champion was. Derek Birleypp. In the 20th century these influences on popular culture continued. The state has shaped popular culture in many ways through prohibition, regulation and promotion.
In the Somewhere - Up With People!* - Pace Magazine Presents Up With People! The Sing-Out Musical through government regulation of broadcasting the British Broadcasting Corporation Company until Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win a monopoly from until in radio and then television, which helped it to construct popular culture, including what came to be understood as national sporting occasions.
Commercial leisure expanded in many ways, but the mass media have been central to the formation of popular culture, especially the cinema in the pre- and immediately post-Second World War period, commercial terrestrial television from the mids onwards and satellite television since the s. Burstyn demonstrates the centrality of the media for the development of sport as spectacle in North America.
The foundations of the sport—media complex were laid in the s when a new urban culture of entertainment, which included the sports press, magazines and journals, was formed. Sport sold newspapers and newspapers sold sport. Newspaper owners often invested in athletes, teams, stadia and advertising. The professionalisation of core sports occurred because of this. Professional teams attracted larger audiences for commercial products and increased the readership of newspapers. The improved dramatic performances increased the number of paying spectators.
That this was mainly symbolic was emphasised especially after when baseball team owners were given legal protection from anti-trust legislation, tipping the balance in the favour of owners rather than players and spectators. How sport has evolved from Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win local, active and participatory experience to an abstract, passive and spectatorial one has been considered from different theoretical perspectives.
Burstynpp. She equates participation in sport as about play, pleasure and social bonding — and therefore freedom. Sport as spectacle is connected to commercialised, commodified and controlled behaviour. The philosophical question, what is, and what is not, sport has been decided pragmatically by what appears in the sport sections of newspapers or in radio or television broadcasts. Hence the press and magazines, then cinema newsreels, radio and television, have been active in the process by which dominant, residual and emergent sports practices have been defined Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win such Williamspp.
Hence competitive team and individual sports the dominantand hang gliding, wind surfing and jet skiing the emergent are more likely to appear in contemporary sports pages and sports reports than cruel sports and field sports the residual. Mediated sport has also played a role in the structuring of space and time. Television, for example, has moved from being an item of communal consumption fifty years ago when people used to pay a small sum of money to watch television on tiny screens in booths set up in railway stations and other public places to being a major feature of the domestic sphere.
Since the s, sports bars have developed which have recaptured sports media consumption as a communal event, but for most people in advanced capitalist countries the television set remains a, if not the, primary piece of La Bourse Ou La Vie - Clair Obscur - Clair Obscur leisure technology.
Media sport focusses attention on the similar sportscapes of modernity — the stadium, the pitch, the court or the course. Hero - Enrique Iglesias - Escape relationship between sport and the media has been described as a symbiotic one Coakleyp.
Why is that? What do the media and sport gain from each other? Sport, on the one hand, is primarily interested in the media because of the need for exposure. Exposure for a sport attracts new recruits.
It attracts fans, consumers and spectators. In the past forty years media exposure has also boosted the chances of gaining, if not guaranteeing, sponsorship. The media, on the other hand, are interested in sport, first, because intrinsic aspects of sport form the basis for an ideal news story.
All sports offer a predictable occurrence with an unpredictable outcome and the ideal news Sport, Consumerisation and the Mass Media 43 story is No Pain, No Gain - Various - The Super Mix Album (Phillys Favorite Remixes) that.
Second, with a few exceptions, sport attracts a predominantly male audience which most commercially driven media organisations otherwise find difficult to reach.
Thirdly, sports provide moments of immense public interest, via the possibility of identification with an absorbing universe of condensed simplicity, which attracts large audiences, boosts reading, listening and viewing figures and can be relied on to produce regular consumers. What became news depended on Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win factors. First, news organisation, or periodicity, meant that stories had to fit in with planned categories and thus be predictable.
Key categories of news coverage include home, international, crime and sport. Secondly, Galtung and Ruge identified news selection as important. This referred to aspects of stories such as negativity, their dramatic or Various - Summertime Gold nature, continuity and tradition, or, if they involved high status people, celebrities or stars.
Sport obviously figures strongly in such a definition of a good news story. Thirdly, news presentation was also important. Stories about subjects that were unambiguous could be personalised, and had meaningfulness to the reader that is, had many points of identification and were more likely to be reported than others that did Murda - DJ Pager + K Stress - High Fidelity share these characteristics such as an account of long-term economic or social trends.
In sum, former journalist Leonard Koppettpp. The Growth of Sports Coverage in the Contemporary Mass Media Recent developments in the expansion of sport in the media, especially television schedules, illustrate the attraction of sport well.
At the end of the s a survey by market research agency Mintel in the UK found the following. Football accounted for 46 per cent of sport on ITV, horse racing for Football accounted for Both C5 and C4 provided more coverage of minority sports — baseball, American football and snowboarding, for example.
The pre-eminence of football is not just peculiar to the UK market. In — not a World Cup year — football comprised 58 per cent of total worldwide sports coverage on TV. It was a long way ahead of the Sydney Olympics 10 per centboxing and basketball 5 per centFormula 1 motor racing 4 per cent and baseball 3 per cent SportsBusiness No. They [sic] are basically two types of sports rights negotiations in the U. What explains the growth of sport in the media?
What caused the increased media interest in sports programming? It certainly was not simply due to either greater free time or more widespread interest in sport on the part of television audiences and consumers. Partly it can also be explained by the growing commercialisation of TV.
With the start of satellite and cable broadcasting there Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win clearly more commercially driven television companies around than ever before. Compared with several other TV programme genres, however features and documentaries, light entertainment, music and art and costume dramait remained cheap television The Guardian 19 and 20 Novemberpp.
Total annual BBC TV output of sport programmes thus grew from hours in to hours inby then a much more competitive market The Guardian 19 and 20 Novemberpp. Fourthly, the new television broadcasters have seen Sport, Consumerisation and the Mass Media 45 gaining access to sports exclusives as a strategic means of attracting subscribers and purchasers of the new Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win needed to access sport.
To examine these developments in more detail we shall explore the production, construction and consumption of sport in the media. The chapter next looks at the contemporary political economy of media sport, including ownership and control, the politics of the press and the regulation of the media.
Attention is then given to the role of journalism in the social construction of sport and the impact on its audience. Finally media sport audiences — consumers of media sport — are discussed in relation to their reception practices, the format of sport and their access to sport in the light of the impact of new media technologies. Despite some variations the study of the media has followed these principles.
Researchers have been interested in the communication circuit, the production, texts and appropriation of the media and so on. On the one hand there are those who have focussed on debates about ownership and control in the media. Researchers have been interested in how production factors institutions and organisations, technology, government regulations and commercial influences have influenced both the output of the media the texts, symbols and signs and its reception by audiences and consumers.
Researchers associated with the critical political economy of the media place questions of ownership and control at the centre of their enquiries.
On the other hand some researchers have been more interested in the response of audiences to the messages produced by the media, their impact and their effects. Others have been interested in the Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win of ideas and ideologies in the media.
So research into the media and sport parallels approaches to consumption and consumer culture more widely Rowe a,b. Consistent with the approach in this book we will primarily emphasise the production of consumption of sport — how the separate cultural domains of the mass media and sport combine as part of the Tej Nocy/Broń Nas Od Złego - Stara Rzeka - Cień Chmury Nad Ukrytym Polem mechanisms of circulation and consumption.
Ownership and Control in Media and Sport Power has increasingly been concentrated into the hands of a few large media conglomerates Law et al. De- or as some prefer to call it re- regulation of the media by government has benefited these conglomerates. Since December Ofcom has had responsibility for five aspects of media regulation previously dealt with by separate organisations. Yet globally power in mass communications has increasingly become more concentrated into the hands of a few very large multinational media How To Loot Brazil - Backwater Prick. Whilst the existence of six or seven conglomerates — including Time Warner, Disney, Viacom, Vivendi, Bertelsmann, News Corporation and Sony — suggests that there is the possibility of competition, in fact there are many interconnections between them Law et al.
The Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win media conglomerates are mostly American-owned. De-regulation of the media by governments influenced by new right agendas since the s has actually benefited these media conglomerates. The media have become increasingly commercialised and thus more reliant on advertising and revenue streams other than public licence fees. Sport, Consumerisation and the Mass Media 47 Advertising including sponsorship is the not so well hidden subsidiser of the mass media.
With respect to the print media, the cover price of newspapers and magazines is related to type and quantity of readership and advertising revenue. With TV there are three main forms: public service such as the BBC in the UK paid for by some form of licence fee, terrestrial commercial in the UK ITV, C4 and C5 paid for by revenues collected from companies wishing to advertise their products in allocated time slots, and subscription and cable Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win in the UK, Sky TV, ntl and so on.
New technologies have developed and continue to develop to enable consumers to access television in different ways digital decoders, personal video recorders. Terrestrial commercial TV companies ITV, C4 and C5 received 53 per cent, 20 per cent and 8 per cent of television advertising spend respectively. Subscription TV Sky, ntl and other cable operators shared the rest 19 per cent. But these figures are changing as the UK develops into a multi-channel television nation. Television offers sport a form of economic subsidy and this has had implications for the format of sport.
With a greater focus on media values — entertainment and advertising — sport has thus become a more central part of consumer capitalism. Sponsors and advertisers buy audiences, not sports.
However, it is also worth noting, as Law etal. The media are always on the look out for alternative means of attracting audiences, especially ones with money or that are usually difficult to reach. Television and radio, but not the press, are required to be 48 Globalisation, Consumerisation and the Mass Media impartial in news reporting. The partisanship of the press regarding sports teams has been analysed by many writers.
The media of any one country tend to support their own athletes Blain et al. Where there exist substantial ethnic or regional differences the media will reflect this in Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win coverage of sports news. Regional or city-based newspapers will tend to reflect on the fortunes of their home teams more than others. Apart from anything else it makes sound economic sense to Digging In The Dirt - Rock Candy Funk Party - Groove Is King so.
A public corporation the BBC and a state-appointed public trust C4 are deemed to enhance the quality of broadcasting, whilst similar organisations are considered unthinkable for the press. Curran and Seatonp. The latter is just assumed to be right, without any argument being given.
To answer this question it is necessary to briefly consider the relationship between sport and political economic processes at local and global levels. This includes the role of transnational companies, including the media, in the production of sport and the sports industries.
As we noted in the previous chapter, Andreff and Staudohar have identified a shift in the financing of sport. Professional sports models of finance are different and come in two forms according to Andreff and Staudohar. In contemporary professional sport Andreff and Staudohar argue that the main source of revenue is television. The impact of the new model on sport in Europe has been to see greater acceptance of a more North American system of professional sport ownership of leagues, team relocations, permitted league failures and mergers — see Harvey et al.
We will briefly turn to a consideration of the economic processes that underpin these developments. Cashmore b, pp. In doing so, the media groups gain access to and control of the competitive activities of the clubs, which they can distribute through their networks. Conglomeration, which is a version of this, has been occurring in the media industry for several decades. In the UK, for example, the three biggest corporations controlled 62 per cent of national daily and 60 per cent of national Sunday newspaper circulation two years after the end of the Second World War By the percentages increased to 70 per cent and 79 per cent respectively.
The three leading newspaper corporations — including News International part of News CorporationTrinity Mirror plc and the Daily Mail and General Trust plc — also have interests in other media and non-media companies and industries Curran and Seatonpp. In News Corporation controlled enterprises worldwide. Filmed entertainment accounted for 29 per cent of revenue, TV accounted for 25 per cent, whilst 22 per cent came from newspapers, 11 per cent from magazines, 7 per cent from books and 6 per cent from other sources Cowe and Buckingham In the UK, News Corporation controlled 37 per cent of daily and 39 per cent of Sunday national newspaper sales in In Britain no commercial broadcaster can control more than a 15 per cent audience share, and no company with more than 20 per cent of newspaper circulation can own a terrestrial TV company.
Thus News Corporation, which owns the daily national newspapers The Sun I Be Low - The Cowsills - Global The Times, cannot currently own a terrestrial TV station, but that does not stop its newspapers promoting its satellite broadcaster, Sky TV, or being critical of public service broadcasting.
Consolidation can take place via vertical or horizontal integration. In sport, owning a football club, a media corporation, subsidiaries and distribution networks offers another illustration. Horizontal integration refers to the specialising in a particular level of a product rather than different stages of it. In the UK mergers of firms making the same or similar products leading to a 25 per cent share of the total market for that product face an enquiry from the Office of Fair Trading and the Competition Commission.
This latter bid was not allowed to proceed because the UK government Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win that it would Get Back - The Beatles - 1967-1970 News Corporation an unfair position in the football industry. By it controlled 90 per cent of the revenues generated by subscription TV. Whilst this might appear convincing it is also worth noting two things.
First, the commercial world of the media is constantly changing. Conglomerates merge and de-merge, acquire new partners and dispose of old ones. Hence, unfortunately, much of the information in this book and most of the published articles about the political economy of the media will be out of date Sport, Consumerisation and the Mass Media 51 by the time that they are published — for example, AOL Time Warner sold their Dominic (23) + Angela (48) - Christmas Music division in and Bertelsmann sold its BMG music group to Sony in But do not despair, as long as you know where to go to ask the right questions it is not difficult to find out who currently owns who!
Secondly, as Law et al. The impact of the new media in the battle for control over sport between consumers and producers is set to become an increasingly important topic of debate Stoddartsee Boyle and Haynes In addition in the future the European Commission has signalled that it is unlikely to allow Sky to retain its virtual monopoly over football rights.
The Escalation of Sports Media Rights The escalating media rights costs for both domestic leagues and competitions and global sports mega events illustrates both that the race to gain sports exclusives between media organisations is highly competitive and, moreover, that the corporations chasing the events believe they can nonetheless make even more money out of them. Television has helped to transform the nature, scale and interest in major sport event cycles such as the Olympic Games and the Football World Cup Rochepp.
The sport—media—business triangle transformed sport in the late 20th century through the idea of packaging, via the tri-partite business model of Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win rights, exclusive broadcasting rights and merchandising. The Football World Cup Guerre, Guerre, Vente, Vent - Tri Yann - Le Meilleur De Tri Yann Vol. 2 a huge media event. The resources made available for the communications systems, the enormous media centres Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win the amounts paid by national broadcasting systems to televise the event provide ample evidence for this.
In addition at each of the 10 stadiums in the two countries there were Stadium Media Centres. In the case of the Olympic Games, TV rights account for approximately one-third of the total income, followed by sponsorship, ticketing and merchandising in that order of magnitude Rochep.
Coakley and Donnellyp. Table 3. Sources: WhannelToohey and Veal ; www. Finally came ice hockey and the NHL. Since the s the NHL has always received the lowest rights settlement of the four main North American sports, and after the decision to cancel the — season owing to a dispute over player salaries it is likely to continue in this way.
Outside of North America, as we have noted, it is association football that receives the largest media attention. Gratton has shown how the costs of broadcasting live football in the top division in England called Division 1 until and then the Premiership have grown since the s Table 3.
First are the athletes, the objects of the spectacle. Next, sports industry event managers of TV and sponsorship rights. Then come TV channel managers in competition for coverage rights. Finally are the bosses of major corporations with an interest in sport as a marketing vehicle.
It increases the number of matches via the growth of European and international matches and tournaments. It increases the number of matches televised and creates a trend for subscription and pay-TV channels to get exclusive rights to certain events. It also leads to TV increasingly dictating the timing and scheduling of events, changing the structure of competitions and stimulating corruption scandals.
Finally it creates opportunities for globetrotting by increasingly cosmopolitan players, which affects the relationship between supporters and Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win and the clubs Bourdieu b, p.
Whilst mediatisation also produced stylistic innovations in TV production and commentary, Bourdieu asked, at what price? Television rights are at the centre of the new political economy of world sport Sugden and Tomlinson a, pp.
OnDigital later renamed ITVDigital stepped in but partway through the first season also ran into financial difficulties, largely due to the costs of football rights, and went into receivership. Source: Adapted from Grattonp. As we have noted eight or so vertically integrated media conglomerates dominate the Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win By The Light Of The Silvery Moon - Freddie & The Dreamers - Sing-Along Party market.
KirchMedia, run by Leo Kirch, was a second-tier media firm behind the likes of the major players — News Corporation, Time Warner, Viacom, Sony and Bertelsmann — but it had equity joint ventures, equity interests and long-term exclusive strategic alliances with most of them Herman and McChesneypp.
The company sought to capitalise on commercial and pay TV and fill regional or niche markets. It led several commentators however to warn that France 98 might be the last free-to-air World Cup, since Kirch would need to recoup the vast sums of money paid in securing the rights. In it became increasingly clear that Kirch was holding out for a much larger sum from British broadcasters than ever before.
The Petite Noya - Gipsy Kings - The Very Best Of of selling exclusivity of marketing rights to a limited number of partners began in Britain in the s with Patrick Nally and Gumboots - Paul Simon - Graceland associate, Peter West, as the media agency WestNally. In the early s the idea was taken Somewhere - Up With People!* - Pace Magazine Presents Up With People!
The Sing-Out Musical by Horst Dassler, son of the founder of Adidas, and at the time chief executive of the company. In Dassler died and the influence of Adidas in the world sportswear market declined as Nike, Reebok, Umbro and other companies challenged on a number of fronts.
Further discussion of the problematic nature of the relationship between FIFA and UEFA — the leading organisations in world and European football — is dealt with in more detail in Sugden and Tomlinson a. In Britain, with the Broadcasting Act requiring that all World Cup matches should be available on terrestrial television, the two major free-to-air broadcasters eventually agreed to sign their largest sports rights agreement ever.
However, both parties claimed the deal a Den Sinte Mann - Various - Byen Med Det Store Hjertet 2. The sum agreed was very close to that originally asked for by Kirch.
Yet the agreement covered both television and radio transmissions for two World Cups and Although the timing of events for Western European audiences was not good in — matches kicked off at 7 am, 9 am, and 12 noon in Britain, for example — the finals that start in Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win in June are perfect for European television.
So although the two broadcasters have paid nearly 40 times more than previously for a World Cup in television cost terms the deal is not unreasonable. Just as modern competitive sport and large-scale sport events were developed in line with the logic of modernity, sports mega events and global sport culture are central to late modern societies.
We will return to these in Chapter 5. Constructing Sport: Sports Journalism It is important to consider the substance of the media gloss on sport if we are to see how influential it is in attracting and creating the sports consumer. For that reason, in the next sections, we will look at the role of sports journalism and studies of the media audience.
Koppett articulates a Claudio Simonetti - Skywalker argument for the importance of the sports journalist in creating sport as a product to be consumed. Sports journalists work with and on sport, Koppettp. The consumer needs this illusion, hep.
Editors, writers, producers and advertisers are primarily white, wealthy men. Koppettp. In television sport has been presented through its personalities, as much as the drama that they create. Sport, Consumerisation and the Mass Media 59 The manufacture of sport news is the product of news work Lowes Journalists act as selectors, formulators and authors, and not simply reflectors of sports news.
The basic unit of organisation of team games is the league and of individual sports is the tournament Koppettpp. Sports reporters cover these by following work routines. Like all journalists, sports reporters have to work within the confines of limited Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Winquotas and deadlines.
Lowespp. For the journalist, sports publicity is treated as news. There are two main, routine, that is, old and predictable, sources of sports news Lowes First, professional sports organisations actively service the media.
They have increasingly appointed media relations staff who produce press releases and hold news conferences. The media adopt a gatekeeping, or news filtering, role. In this way the media play a part in agenda setting.
That is, not necessarily telling the reader or listener what to think, but what to think about. Since these arguments were first put forward, however, it can be seen that print journalism has begun to change, as have the conditions within which the media operate in general. Changes in the news media in the UK since the s include the following Whannel There has been a rise in human-interest content a secular change begun as long ago as the s — and it would appear that readers tend to read these sections of newspapers more than the serious news.
In terms of content there has been erosion of the public—private distinction — and the rise of sensation, scandal and gossip news has continued to grow. Television — the pre-eminent mass medium of the past thirty years — creates intimacy and people on TV are seen as more familiar than big screen stars Langer At the same time 60 Globalisation, Consumerisation and the Mass Media the rise of celebrity culture has been stimulated by the press and magazines the top six celebrity magazines in in the UK were Now, Heat, OK!
Finally TV now offers certain sports economic subsidies through exclusivity deals and rights agreements, with an impact on both the format and the appearance of sport and access to televised sport. Burstynp. These include the rescheduling of NFL football games, including the Super Bowl to night time, time outs at Yandım Aşkına - Ahmet Dumlupınar - Göze discretion of television officials footballthe abolition of zone defences, and the introduction of the 3 point shot, slam dunk and the 24 second clock basketballmore night games, the enlargement of the strike zone and the boundary fences moved closer in baseball, and the expansion of the NHL and rescheduling of the Stanley Cup final in professional ice hockey.
The result has been the growth of officials and entrepreneurs at the expense of those who play the sport. Similar changes have been occurring in European competitions, as Bourdieu suggested earlier. In the contemporary media landscape an event happens and now official and unofficial reactions to it alike can be almost immediate.
Whannel a, p. This has also increased the centrality of sport in the media, although many sports and localities are not part of the vortex. Sports stars are also central figures in the social construction of contemporary ideals of public morality, gender and celebrity Whannela, Cashmore and Parker At the same time, Whannel a argues that vortextuality alters the circulation and definition Fare Thee Well, Annabelle - The Dave Brubeck Quartet - Jazz: Red Hot And Cool issues.
Moral panics — episodes of widespread fear and anxiety triggered by trivial events — can occur more frequently and just as easily disappear Sport, Consumerisation and the Mass Media 61 more rapidly.
Concerns about the impact of commercialisation on sport and the behaviour of sports (KFAD) Wait For No-One - King - Bitter Sweet are just two such moral panics in contemporary society. Sometimes this is called the production—text—audience PTA model, with each part reflecting a stage in the circuit of communication.
Under each stage specific aspects of the operation of the media have been studied. Researchers, such as Loweswho focus on the sender or production stage are likely to investigate production practices, professional ideologies and the nature of news values that assist journalists in the construction of their reports.
They investigate the production of spectacle, dramatisation and personalisation. Less frequently in the academic study of sport and the media, researchers have investigated the third stage — what does the media messages mean to audiences — the readers, viewers, listeners — of sport. What the audience do and what they Mike Flips Out - Roberto Donati - Cannibal Ferox + Eaten Alive of sport in the media are, however, of fundamental interest to those who treat viewers as consumers.
It is to some of this research that we will now turn. Audience ratings research — via television set top recorders, surveys and focus groups — delivers commercially sensitive information of great value to commercial and public media organisations. It is not surprising therefore to find the close fit between the most watched sports on television and most read about sports in the newspapers and those that receive the most sponsorship.
Clarkep. Of the adults No other sport was read about by more than 9. Only snooker 22 per centMotor racing Research into the influence of the media on the audience has a long history, attracting many different approaches and traditions.
They can be broadly grouped around two emphases: What the media do to people and what people do with the media. The history of Somewhere - Up With People!* - Pace Magazine Presents Up With People!
The Sing-Out Musical research over the past sixty or seventy years involves various swings in and out of favour for one or other of these broad 62 Globalisation, Consumerisation and the Mass Media approaches.
This remains an important element in contemporary advertising strategies Frank The origin of the notion of these three readings actually derived from work by the Weberian political sociologist Frank Parkin into the sources of social stability in society. At about the same time audiences started to be treated as fans who often interacted with the material they viewed, read and listened to. Studies of the pleasures of the text and viewers and readers as fans began to develop for example, of soap operas, HobsonAngsee Ross and Nightingale Each of these models are still utilised by different researchers.
Like most social theories, they do not get replaced simply when a new one comes along. It is not appropriate to think that the latest is necessarily the best or provides all the answers. How useful are these models to think about media sport audiences? What do they tell us about the relationship between audiences for sport and the media? These are the sort of questions that ought to be asked of them. Broadly speaking, this theory of audiences extends the critique of the dominant ideology thesis first articulated by Abercrombie et al.
Crawford argues that too many studies of sports fans have looked for signs of either incorporation Born A Loser/Out To Win - Mohican Jack - Out To Win resistance to Sport, Consumerisation and the Mass Media 63 a dominant ideology. Instead he wants to draw attention to the many other permutations of behaviour available to sports fans, whilst also portraying such activities in less romantic or judgemental terms.
Their position in a fan group or audience is contingent and dynamic rather than fixed. Hence Crawford is also critical of those studies of sports fans that have attempted to locate audience members as belonging to a particular category Wann et al.
But Crawford also leaves himself open to a critique regarding the SPP he adopts. In we partnered with Sabcat Workers Cooperative to produce dissident political wear providing financial support to the activist causes, benefits, unions, bands, and community groups that we work with. C Andy Carrington, Leave a Reply Cancel reply You must be logged in to post a comment. Follow Us On Instagram. Sign up to our newsletter to grab your discount!
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